An Adverb is a word used to modify any part of speech, except a Noun, a Pronoun, and an Interjection.
Lisa goes slowly. (Adverb modifies a verb)
Olivia is a very beautiful girl. (Adverb modifies an adjective)
She goes very slowly. (Adverb modifies another adverb)
The bird flew exactly over her head. (Adverb modifies a preposition)
We dislike her simply because she is very rude. (Adverb modifies conjunction)
Types of Adverbs in a Table
An Adverb may denote time, place, number manner degree, reason, purpose, condition, and contrast.
|Adverbs of Time||Indefinite: after, ago, soon, early|
Definite: now, today, tomorrow
|He will come now.|
|Adverbs of Place||here, there, far, near||We must take some rest here.|
|Adverbs of Number||once, twice, thrice, again, seldom, never, always, often||He did this once, but he will not do it again.|
|Adverbs of Manner||slowly, surely, certainly, badly, well, thus, probably, possibly||He did his work slowly but surely.|
|Adverbs of Degree||very, much, partly, wholly, quite, almost, enough||I am quite sure.|
|Adverbs of Reason||as, so, because||As he is ill, he will not come.|
|Adverbs of Purpose||that, so that||We read that we can learn.|
|Adverbs of Condition||if, unless||I shall help you if you come.|
|Adverbs of Contrast||though, although||Though he is rich, he is not happy.|
Types of Adverbs in Detail
A) Simple Adverbs
- Adverbs of Time
- Adverbs of Place
- Adverbs of Manner
- Adverbs of Quantity
- Adverbs of Cause-Effect
- Adverbs of Purpose
- Adverbs of Order
- Adverbs of Affirmation
- Adverbs of Negation
- Adverbs of Degree
B) Relative Adverbs/Conjunctive Adverbs
Relative adverbs indicate their relationship to the antecedent whereas, Conjunctive Adverbs join two clauses other than the antecedent.
C) Interrogative Adverbs
To start a wh-question to gain information.
Types of adverb #1
Adverbs of Time
When or for how long the action is done.
Adverbs of Time: now, then, ago, again, already, always, before, after, since, seldom, often, soon, late, afterwards, today, tomorrow, yesterday, sometimes, ever, never, early, formerly, presently, recently, immediately, instantly, once, twice, thrice, etc.
|When?||He started early.|
The police arrived late.
|How Long/How Often?||Do it now.|
He is always busy.
She seldom makes mistakes.
He comes here frequently.
Types of adverb #2
Adverbs of Place
Where the action is done
Adverbs of Place: here, there, near, far, away, abroad, above, below, down, out, up, anywhere, everywhere, in, on, inside, outside, within, without, etc.
|Where?||Come here. / Go there.|
Go away. / Go anywhere.
Wait here for the stranger.
|Where From?||This was collected locally.|
This question is out of the syllabus.
The stranger came from outside the country.
Types of adverb #3
Adverbs of Manner
How the action is done
Adverbs of Manner: ill, well, thus, and adjective + ly.
The largest class of Adverbs of Manner comes from Adjectives ending in -ly, such as: clearly, closely, correctly, bravely, badly, sadly, slowly, quickly, luckily, etc.
|How?||The sick man walks slowly.|
Do your own work quickly.
He can speak American English fluently.
|In what manner?||The girl was treated badly.|
You have done well.
Read the comprehensive passage aloud.
Types of adverb #4
Adverbs of Degree
How much or to what extent the action is done
Adverbs of Degree: almost, a little, quite, enough, very, much, too, so, somewhat, rather, partly, fully, wholly, completely, totally, entirely, poorly, deeply, greatly, etc.
|How much?||I am quite happy.|
Sophia is fully prepared.
Tom is greatly admired.
|To what extent?||They are partly right.|
The mango is almost ripe.
Emma is far better today.
Types of adverb #5
Adverbs of Cause Effect
Why the action is done
Adverbs of Cause Effect: hence, therefore, so, accordingly, consequently, etc.
|Cause||He is hence absent.|
|Effect||Charlotte, therefore, left the school.|
Accordingly, I had to attend the meeting.
Consequently, Amelia won the prize.
Incidentally, Mia got the ticket.
Types of adverb #6
Adverbs of Purpose
For which the action is done
Adverbs of Purpose: that, so that, in order that.
|For Which||We eat in order that we may live.|
We read that (in order that) we learn.
He works hard so that he can succeed.
Types of adverb #7
Adverbs of Order
In which order the action is done
Adverbs of Order: first, second, third, fourth, firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, last, lastly.
|In which order||Emily came here first.|
Hazel was second in rank.
Firstly, take a banana.
Then wash it properly.
Lastly, Camila was convinced.
Types of adverb #8
Adverbs of Affirmation
To express affirmation
Adverbs of Affirmation: yes, at all, perhaps, possibly, probably.
|Supporting||Yes, I know it.|
Yes, you are right.
Types of adverb #9
Adverbs of Negation
To express negation
Adverbs of Negation: not, never, not at all
|Denying||I do not know him.|
Zoe did not come here.
Madison never failed the exam.
Types of adverb #10
Adverbs of Degree: Intensifier
To intensify an action
Intensifier: actually, certainly, surely, definitely, really, absolutely, thoroughly, utterly, very much, indeed.
|Intensifying||Surely, you are mistaken.|
William would certainly go there.
I really don’t know.
Adverbs of Degree: Downtoner
To downtone an action
Downtoner: hardly, scarcely, barely, nearly, rather, somewhat.
|Downtoner||I can hardly / scarcely see it.|
This soup is rather hot.
This is somewhat wrong.
Benjamin can barely make both ends meet.
It was nearly a month ago.
Types of adverb #11
To denote their relation with the antecedent
|Relating to the antecedent||This is the place where he lives. [Rel. Clause]|
No one knows the time when he will come. [Rel. Clause]
I know the reason why he did it. [Rel. Clause]
I don’t know the process how he did it. [Rel. Clause]
Types of adverb #12
To join two Clauses without the Antecedent
|Joining without the antecedent||This is where he lives. [Adv. Clause]|
You may go where you like. [Adv. Clause]
You shall go when he comes. [Adv. Clause]
I know why he did it. [Noun Clause]
I don’t know how he did it. [Noun Clause]
Henry came here while I was eating.[Adv. Clause]
Types of adverb #13
To start a wh-question to gain information
|(1) Interrogative Adverbs of place|
 Interrogative Adverbs of time
(3) Interrogative Adverbs of reason
[4) Interrogative Adverbs of manner
 Interrogative Adverbs of number
 Interrogative Adverbs of quantity
 Interrogative Adverbs of degree
 Interrogative Adverbs of frequency
|Where is the book?|
When will you go?
Why are you late?
How did you do this?
How many boys are there?
How much salt is there?
How far was the report true?
How often do you visit the temple?
Interrogative Adverbs: where, when, why, how, how much, how many, how far, how long
Interrogative Pronoun: who, whose, whom, what