Joining Sentences: Two or more than two short sentences can usually be joined into a single sentence. This process is called Joining.
We can join two or more sentences into a single sentence by making it :
- Simple sentence
- Complex sentence
- Compound sentence
WAYS OF JOINING SENTENCES #1
JOINING INTO A SIMPLE SENTENCE
PATTERN 1: By using an Infinitive
|He is very weak. He cannot walk.||He is too weak to walk.|
|He has a house. He wishes to sell it.||He has a house to sell.|
|He reads attentively. He wants to pass the exam.||He reads attentively to pass the exam.|
PATTERN 2: By using an Adjective Before a Noun
|I saw a man by the roadside. He was old.||I saw an old man by the roadside.|
|I lost my watch. It was costly.||I lost my costly watch.|
|Do not laugh at the man. He is lame.||Do not laugh at the lame man.|
PATTERN 3: By using an Adverb or Adverbial Phrase
|He will come here. It is sure.||He will surely come here.|
|He failed the exam. It was unfortunate.||Unfortunately, he failed the exam.|
|He maintains his job. He does it carefully.||He maintains his job carefully|
|He described the fact. He did not fear at all.||He described the fact without any fear (Adv. phrase)|
PATTERN 4: By using a Present Participle
|Do not jump from the train. The train is running.||Do not jump from the running train.|
|He was tired. He took a rest for a while.||Being tired he took a rest for a while.|
|We found a beggar. He was lying by the roadside.||We found a beggar lying by the roadside.|
PATTERN 5: By using a Past Participle
|We saw a man. He was wounded.||We saw a wounded man.|
|He had a dog. It was well-trained.||He had a well-trained dog.|
PATTERN 6: By using a Perfect Participle
|We visited the fair. We returned home.||Having visited the fair, we returned home.|
|I completed my homework. I sat for watching the TV.||Having completed my homework, I sat for watching the TV.|
PATTERN 7: By using a Preposition with a Verbal Noun/Gerund
|She heard the news of her husband’s death. She fainted.||On hearing the news of her husband’s death, she fainted.|
|The sun set. He could not complete his work.||The sun set before the completion of his work.|
PATTERN 8: By using a Prepositional Phrase
|He was ill. Still, he continued his work.||In spite of his illness, he continued his work.|
|He worked hard. He won the prize.||He won the prize by dint of hard work.|
PATTERN 9: By using a Noun/Phrase in Apposition
|He is Barun. He is my brother.||He is Barun, my brother.|
|Benaras is a city of temples, It stands on the Ganga.||Benaras, the city of temples stands on the Ganga.|
PATTERN 10: By using a Nominative Absolute [an Absolute Phrase]
|The sun rose. The fog dispersed.||The sun having risen, the fog dispersed.|
|The police arrived. The thieves fled.||The police having arrived, the thieves fled.|
WAYS OF JOINING SENTENCES #2
JOINING INTO COMPLEX SENTENCE
PATTERN 1: Joining with a Noun Clause
Linker: (that, who, which, what, why, if, etc.)
|He has come. We know it.||We know that he has come.|
|He did it. I do not know how.||I do not know how he did it.|
|You have insulted her. This is her complaint.||Her complaint is that you have insulted her.|
|She is laughing. Nobody knows the reason.||Nobody knows why she is laughing.|
|Is it time for the train to start? The guard asked.||The guard asked if it was time for the train to start.|
PATTERN 2. Joining with a Relative Clause
Linker: who, whose, whom, which, when, where, why, that, etc.
|He told us about a wild boar. He met it on a road.||He told us about a wild boar which he met on a road.|
|The man was delighted. His horse won the race.||The man whore horse won the race was delighted.|
|You met a man last night. He is a doctor.||The man whom you met last night is a doctor.|
|He is absent. I want to know the reason.||I want to know the reason why he is absent.|
|The meeting is due tomorrow. It must be postponed.||The meeting which is due tomorrow must be postponed.|
|I went to the museum yesterday. Many people go there.||Yesterday, I went to the museum where many people go.|
|Mr. Bose lives in a nice flat. It is in Salt Lake.||The nice flat in which Mr. Bose lives is in Salt Lake.|
[Or] Mr. Bose lives in a nice flat which is in Salt Lake.
|He will come. I do not know the time.||I do not know the time when he will come.|
|This is the house. It was burnt last night.||This is the house that was burnt last night.|
PATTERN 3: Joining with an Adverbial Clause
Linker: If, though, as, when, where, so that, etc.
|It is very simple. Even a child can do it.||It is so simple that a child can do.|
|You are excused. You have confessed your fault.||As you have confessed your fault, you are excused.|
|He is rich. He did not help me.||Though he is rich, he did not help me.|
|I am poor. I shall not sell my honesty.||Although I am poor, I shall not sell my honesty.|
|I can help you. You should put trust on me.||If you put trust on me, I can help you.|
|The storm broke out. We lost our way in the jungle.||We lost our way in the jungle when the storm broke out.|
WAYS OF JOINING SENTENCES #3
JOINING INTO COMPOUND SENTENCE
By Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, So, therefore, yet, either….or, neither….nor
PATTERN 1: Joining by Co-ordinating Conjunctions
|He is intelligent. He stood first in the exam.||He is intelligent and he stood first in the exam.|
|He is intelligent. Yet he failed the exam.||He is intelligent but he failed the exam.|
|You may write a letter. You may send a telegram.||You may write a letter or send a telegram.|
|I shall not. go to school. I shall not go to my friend’s house.||I shall go neither to school nor to my friend’s house.|
DIFFERENT TYPES OF LINKERS IN COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCES
- Some Linkers that express time sequence: first, next, after that, finally, etc.
- Some Linkers that suggest addition: and, also, as well, further, moreover, etc.
- Some Linkers that express contrast: but, though, although, however, etc.
- Some Linkers that express condition: if, if so, if not, in that case, etc.
- Linkers that mark concession: still, yet, anyway, in any case, etc.
- Some Linkers that express reason: as, because, so, hence, therefore, etc.
- Some Linkers that express purpose: that, so that, in order that, etc.
JOINING SENTENCES EXERCISES
JOINING SENTENCES EXERCISE TYPE #1
Join two sentences into a single Simple Sentence :
- He has some homework. He must finish it.
- She works hard. She wants to pass the exam.
- He has a camera. He wishes to sell it.
- He has a large family. He has to maintain it.
- He is very tired. He cannot speak.
- I had lost my pen. It was a new one.
- He had died. He was suffering from a fever.
- He did not tell the truth. He did it with intention.
- It must be done. Whatever may be the cost.
- The soldier returned to the camp. He was wounded.
- We bathed in the river. We visited the goddess in the temple.
- I heard the news of his success. I was delighted.
- The dinner was over. The party left the place.
- He was poor. Still, he helped another poor boy.
- Ashoka was a great king of India. He believed in non-violence.
- I was tired. I took a rest for an hour.
- He saw me coming. He ran away.
- He spoke the truth. He did not fear at all.
- The bus was crowded. That was usual.
- He fought alone. He could not find any help.
JOINING SENTENCES EXERCISE TYPE #2
Join the following pairs of sentences by using a Noun Clause (Nominal Clause):
- He will get a job. It is certain. [use ‘that’]
- He will not come. He says no. [use ‘that’]
- Rain will come. I hope it. [use ;that’]
- Somebody knocked at the door. It is a mystery. [use ‘who’]
- He said something. It is true. [use ‘what’]
- I’ll say something. Listen to it. [use ‘what’]
- She will come back. I don’t know the time. [use ‘when’]
- He was born somewhere. I don’t know the place. [use ‘where’]
- He opposed me. I don’t know the reason. [use ‘why’]
- He did the sum. I don’t know the process. [use ‘who’]
JOINING SENTENCES EXERCISE TYPE #3
Join two sentences into a single sentence by using a Relative Clause [who/whose/whom/which that]:
- This is a boy. I told him an interesting story. [Use ‘whom’]
- A boy came to our house yesterday. He is my friend. [Use ‘who’]
- I know Lipika. Her mother came here last month. [Use ‘whose’]
- He gave me a pen. He bought it from the market. [Use ‘which’]
- I lost the book yesterday. I have found it today. [Use ‘that’]
- Rabindranath Tagore was a great poet. He won the Nobel prize. [Use ‘who’]
- Here is the book. You were asking for it. [Use ‘which’]
- I went to visit the Alipur Zoo on Sunday last. Many visitors go there. [Use ‘where’]
- The theft was committed last night. The man has been caught. [Use ‘when’]
- This is the school. I was taught there. [Use ‘where’]
JOINING SENTENCES EXERCISE TYPE #3
Join the following pairs of sentences by using ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘either….or’ ‘neither…nor’ as necessary :
- Ram was present. Shyam also was present. Jadu was absent from school.
- He is poor. He is honest. He is also intelligent.
- You may accept the offer. You may refuse it.
- You may go to the market. Your brother may go to the market.
- I do not know anything about it. My friend does not know anything about it.
JOINING SENTENCES EXERCISE TYPE #4
Combine each of the following groups of sentences into a Simple Sentence :
- I hear a scream. The scream is frightening.
- My sister has lost her watch. It is a costly watch.
- I walk for health every day. I walk in the morning.
- His friend promises to come on a visit. He will come on Sunday.
- We must support him. Otherwise, he will be defeated in the election.
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