Joining Sentences

Joining Sentences: Two or more than two short sentences can usually be joined into a single sentence. This process is called Joining.

We can join two or more sentences into a single sentence by making it :

  • Simple sentence
  • Complex sentence
  • Compound sentence
Joining Sentences



PATTERN 1: By using an Infinitive

He is very weak. He cannot walk.He is too weak to walk.
He has a house. He wishes to sell it.He has a house to sell.
He reads attentively. He wants to pass the exam.He reads attentively to pass the exam.

PATTERN 2: By using an Adjective Before a Noun

I saw a man by the roadside. He was old.I saw an old man by the roadside.
I lost my watch. It was costly.I lost my costly watch.
Do not laugh at the man. He is lame.Do not laugh at the lame man.

PATTERN 3: By using an Adverb or Adverbial Phrase

He will come here. It is sure.He will surely come here.
He failed the exam. It was unfortunate.Unfortunately, he failed the exam.
He maintains his job. He does it carefully.He maintains his job carefully
He described the fact. He did not fear at all.He described the fact without any fear (Adv. phrase)

PATTERN 4: By using a Present Participle

Do not jump from the train. The train is running.Do not jump from the running train.
He was tired. He took a rest for a while.Being tired he took a rest for a while.
We found a beggar. He was lying by the roadside.We found a beggar lying by the roadside.

PATTERN 5: By using a Past Participle

We saw a man. He was wounded.We saw a wounded man.
He had a dog. It was well-trained.He had a well-trained dog.

PATTERN 6: By using a Perfect Participle

We visited the fair. We returned home.Having visited the fair, we returned home.
I completed my homework. I sat for watching the TV.Having completed my homework, I sat for watching the TV.

PATTERN 7: By using a Preposition with a Verbal Noun/Gerund

She heard the news of her husband’s death. She fainted.On hearing the news of her husband’s death, she fainted.
The sun set. He could not complete his work.The sun set before the completion of his work.

PATTERN 8: By using a Prepositional Phrase

He was ill. Still, he continued his work.In spite of his illness, he continued his work.
He worked hard. He won the prize.He won the prize by dint of hard work.

PATTERN 9: By using a Noun/Phrase in Apposition

He is Barun. He is my brother.He is Barun, my brother.
Benaras is a city of temples, It stands on the Ganga.Benaras, the city of temples stands on the Ganga.

PATTERN 10: By using a Nominative Absolute [an Absolute Phrase]

The sun rose. The fog dispersed.The sun having risen, the fog dispersed.
The police arrived. The thieves fled.The police having arrived, the thieves fled.



PATTERN 1: Joining with a Noun Clause
Linker: (that, who, which, what, why, if, etc.)

He has come. We know it.We know that he has come.
He did it. I do not know how.I do not know how he did it.
You have insulted her. This is her complaint.Her complaint is that you have insulted her.
She is laughing. Nobody knows the reason.Nobody knows why she is laughing.
Is it time for the train to start? The guard asked.The guard asked if it was time for the train to start.

PATTERN 2. Joining with a Relative Clause
Linker: who, whose, whom, which, when, where, why, that, etc.

He told us about a wild boar. He met it on a road.He told us about a wild boar which he met on a road.
The man was delighted. His horse won the race.The man whore horse won the race was delighted.
You met a man last night. He is a doctor.The man whom you met last night is a doctor.
He is absent. I want to know the reason.I want to know the reason why he is absent.
The meeting is due tomorrow. It must be postponed.The meeting which is due tomorrow must be postponed.
I went to the museum yesterday. Many people go there.Yesterday, I went to the museum where many people go.
Mr. Bose lives in a nice flat. It is in Salt Lake.The nice flat in which Mr. Bose lives is in Salt Lake.
[Or] Mr. Bose lives in a nice flat which is in Salt Lake.
He will come. I do not know the time.I do not know the time when he will come.
This is the house. It was burnt last night.This is the house that was burnt last night.

PATTERN 3: Joining with an Adverbial Clause
Linker: If, though, as, when, where, so that, etc.

It is very simple. Even a child can do it.It is so simple that a child can do.
You are excused. You have confessed your fault.As you have confessed your fault, you are excused.
He is rich. He did not help me.Though he is rich, he did not help me.
I am poor. I shall not sell my honesty.Although I am poor, I shall not sell my honesty.
I can help you. You should put trust on me.If you put trust on me, I can help you.
The storm broke out. We lost our way in the jungle.We lost our way in the jungle when the storm broke out.



By Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, So, therefore, yet, either….or, neither….nor

PATTERN 1: Joining by Co-ordinating Conjunctions

He is intelligent. He stood first in the exam.He is intelligent and he stood first in the exam.
He is intelligent. Yet he failed the exam.He is intelligent but he failed the exam.
You may write a letter. You may send a telegram.You may write a letter or send a telegram.
I shall not. go to school. I shall not go to my friend’s house.I shall go neither to school nor to my friend’s house.


  • Some Linkers that express time sequence: first, next, after that, finally, etc.
  • Some Linkers that suggest addition: and, also, as well, further, moreover, etc.
  • Some Linkers that express contrast: but, though, although, however, etc.
  • Some Linkers that express condition: if, if so, if not, in that case, etc.
  • Linkers that mark concession: still, yet, anyway, in any case, etc.
  • Some Linkers that express reason: as, because, so, hence, therefore, etc.
  • Some Linkers that express purpose: that, so that, in order that, etc.



Join two sentences into a single Simple Sentence :

  • He has some homework. He must finish it.
  • She works hard. She wants to pass the exam.
  • He has a camera. He wishes to sell it.
  • He has a large family. He has to maintain it.
  • He is very tired. He cannot speak.
  • I had lost my pen. It was a new one.
  • He had died. He was suffering from a fever.
  • He did not tell the truth. He did it with intention.
  • It must be done. Whatever may be the cost.
  • The soldier returned to the camp. He was wounded.
  • We bathed in the river. We visited the goddess in the temple.
  • I heard the news of his success. I was delighted.
  • The dinner was over. The party left the place.
  • He was poor. Still, he helped another poor boy.
  • Ashoka was a great king of India. He believed in non-violence.
  • I was tired. I took a rest for an hour.
  • He saw me coming. He ran away.
  • He spoke the truth. He did not fear at all.
  • The bus was crowded. That was usual.
  • He fought alone. He could not find any help.


Join the following pairs of sentences by using a Noun Clause (Nominal Clause):

  • He will get a job. It is certain. [use ‘that’]
  • He will not come. He says no. [use ‘that’]
  • Rain will come. I hope it. [use ;that’]
  • Somebody knocked at the door. It is a mystery. [use ‘who’]
  • He said something. It is true. [use ‘what’]
  • I’ll say something. Listen to it. [use ‘what’]
  • She will come back. I don’t know the time. [use ‘when’]
  • He was born somewhere. I don’t know the place. [use ‘where’]
  • He opposed me. I don’t know the reason. [use ‘why’]
  • He did the sum. I don’t know the process. [use ‘who’]


Join two sentences into a single sentence by using a Relative Clause [who/whose/whom/which that]:

  • This is a boy. I told him an interesting story. [Use ‘whom’]
  • A boy came to our house yesterday. He is my friend. [Use ‘who’]
  • I know Lipika. Her mother came here last month. [Use ‘whose’]
  • He gave me a pen. He bought it from the market. [Use ‘which’]
  • I lost the book yesterday. I have found it today. [Use ‘that’]
  • Rabindranath Tagore was a great poet. He won the Nobel prize. [Use ‘who’]
  • Here is the book. You were asking for it. [Use ‘which’]
  • I went to visit the Alipur Zoo on Sunday last. Many visitors go there. [Use ‘where’]
  • The theft was committed last night. The man has been caught. [Use ‘when’]
  • This is the school. I was taught there. [Use ‘where’]


Join the following pairs of sentences by using ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘either….or’ ‘neither…nor’ as necessary :

  • Ram was present. Shyam also was present. Jadu was absent from school.
  • He is poor. He is honest. He is also intelligent.
  • You may accept the offer. You may refuse it.
  • You may go to the market. Your brother may go to the market.
  • I do not know anything about it. My friend does not know anything about it.


Combine each of the following groups of sentences into a Simple Sentence :

  • I hear a scream. The scream is frightening.
  • My sister has lost her watch. It is a costly watch.
  • I walk for health every day. I walk in the morning.
  • His friend promises to come on a visit. He will come on Sunday.
  • We must support him. Otherwise, he will be defeated in the election.

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