A participle is a form of a verb that is created by adding -ing, -ed, -en, or other endings to the base form of the verb.

It serves as both a verb and an adjective simultaneously, thus embodying a dual grammatical function.

  • The setting sun casts a warm glow on the horizon.
  • A meandering river gathers no debris.
  • Seeing this, he became extremely anxious.
  • She left behind a legacy, having raised four sons.
  • He is an accomplished musician.
  • The child appears fascinated by the story.
  • Having finished their work, they left the office.

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In the above sentences, Setting, Meandering, Having Raised, Accomplished, Fascinated, and Having Finished are participles.

Types Of Participles

Participles are of three types:

  • Present Participle (verb + ing): “Arriving at the station, she caught the train.”
  • Past Participle (verb + -d/-ed/-en/-t): “I had received the packet earlier than expected.”
  • Perfect Participle (having + verb + -d/-ed/-en/-t): “Having finished the project, she submitted it for review.”

Use Of Present Participles

USE 1: To form Present Continuous Tense

  • I am working.
  • She is studying.
  • They are talking.

USE 2: To form Past Continuous Tense

  • I was writing.
  • He was running.
  • They were singing.

USE 3: To form Future Continuous Tense

  • They will be painting.
  • He will be driving.
  • She shall be cooking.

USE 4: To form Attributive Adjective

  • The chirping birds woke me up early.
  • Running water is relaxing to listen to.
  • The shining sun warmed the day.
  • Don’t touch the rotating fan blades.
  • This is a fascinating documentary.

USE 5: To form a Predicative Adjective

  • The weather seems promising.
  • Her singing is enchanting.
  • The performance was mesmerizing.
  • They saw the cat chasing its tail.

USE 6: To form Object Complement

  • They caught me daydreaming.
  • She found the job exciting.
  • They left the room sparkling clean.
  • I find the book’s ending disappointing.

USE 7: Present participles placed independently with a Noun or Pronoun

  • The cat being asleep, I moved quietly around the house.
  • The concert being canceled, they decided to have a movie night instead.
  • God willing, I shall get the prize.


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USE 8: To be modified by an Adverb

  • Quickly finishing his homework, he rushed out to meet his friends.
  • Gracefully dancing across the stage, she captivated the audience.
  • Carefully examining the evidence, the detective made his deductions.

USE 9: To take degrees of comparison like an Adjective

  • Love is the most fulfilling emotion a person can experience.
  • Patience is the most challenging virtue to cultivate.

USE 10: To direct a Noun or a Pronoun to act as an Infinitive

  • Noticing the commotion, the manager intervened immediately.
  • Advising her on the matter, I helped her reach a decision.
  • Watching the sunset, she felt a sense of tranquility.
  • Joining the conversation, he added valuable insights.
  • Noting the error, the teacher corrected the mistake.

USE 11: To indicate a sense of causing or permitting something after using the verbs ‘have’ or ‘let’

  • I won’t have you playing loud music late at night.
  • I won’t have you using my computer without permission.
  • I won’t have you smoking in the house.
  • I won’t have you skipping your meals.

Some Other Examples Of Present Participles

  • The running child tripped and fell.
  • The singing birds filled the air with their melody.
  • The cooking smell made me hungry.
  • The crying baby kept me awake all night.
  • The laughing friends had a great time together.
  • The working mother struggled to balance her career and family life.
  • The studying student prepared for the upcoming exam.
  • The climbing mountain climbers reached the summit after hours of exertion.
  • The swimming fish darted through the water gracefully.
  • The dancing couple moved to the rhythm of the music.
  • The writing author crafted a beautiful story.
  • The painting artist captured the beauty of the landscape.
  • The teaching teacher helped her students learn and grow.
  • The playing children had a lot of fun at the park.
  • The reading bookworm devoured every book she could get her hands on.
  • Having finished dinner, we went to watch a movie.
  • The dog, wagging its tail, greeted us at the door.
  • The students, listening attentively, took notes during the lecture.
  • The scientist, conducting experiments, made a breakthrough discovery.
  • The artist, painting a portrait, captured the subject’s likeness perfectly.

Use Of Past Participles

USE 1: To form the Present Perfect Tense

  • have eaten breakfast.
  • He has taken a shower.
  • She has brushed her teeth.
  • We have finished our homework.
  • They have arrived at the airport.
  • have lost my keys.
  • He has forgotten his wallet.
  • She has broken her arm.
  • We have seen that movie.
  • They have visited the Eiffel Tower.

USE 2: To form Past Perfect Tense

  • She had finished her homework before dinner was served.
  • The store had closed by the time I reached there.
  • They had already left before the storm arrived.
  • He had read the book before the movie adaptation was released.
  • The concert had ended when we arrived at the venue.
  • The team had scored two goals before the opponent even began to catch up.
  • I had completed the project before the deadline.
  • They had already spoken to the manager before I got a chance to talk to them.
  • The patient had died before the doctor came.
  • The guests had departed by the time the host returned.

USE 3: To form Future Perfect Tense

  • The concert will have ended by the time we arrive at the venue.
  • She will have finished her presentation before the meeting begins.
  • They will have completed the renovations by the end of the month.
  • The company will have launched its new product by next week.
  • He will have graduated before the summer starts.
  • By the time they arrive, the event will have already begun.
  • The team will have scored four goals by halftime.
  • They will have reached the summit before sunset.
  • He will have written the report before the boss arrives.
  • They will have packed their bags before the trip begins.

USE 4: To change the Active Voice into Passive

  • A book was given to him by me.
  • The thief was arrested.
  • Let the door be opened.
  • By whom were you called?
  • English is spoken worldwide by people.
  • The town was destroyed by the storm.
  • The song was sung by the choir.
  • The cake was baked by Sarah.
  • The mistake was made by John.

USE 5: To form an Attributive Adjective

  • The infected computer has been fixed.
  • The lost dog has been found.
  • The blocked drain has been unclogged.

USE 6: To form a Predicative Adjective

  • The kids seemed excited.
  • The house smells freshly baked.
  • The cat looked exhausted.
  • The clothes seemed wrinkled.
  • The window appears cracked.
  • The situation remains unresolved.
  • The opportunity seems missed.
  • The child appears frightened.

USE 7: To form a Participial Phrase

  • Enchanted by the music, she danced all night.
  • Motivated by his mentor’s words, he pursued his ambitions.
  • Intrigued by the mystery, they started investigating.
  • Charmed by her smile, he couldn’t look away.
  • Repulsed by the smell, he left the room quickly.
  • Amazed by the view, they sat there in awe.
  • Overwhelmed by the support, he felt grateful.
  • Captivated by the scenery, they took numerous photographs.
  • Encouraged by his success, she pursued her dreams further.
  • Frightened by the loud thunder, the dog hid under the table.

USE 8: To form a part of an Adjective Phrase

  • She displayed a painting done by her mother.
  • He wore a shirt sold at a discount.
  • They bought a car manufactured in Japan.
  • The necklace was made from pearls.
  • We visited a town surrounded by mountains.
  • He read a book written in the 19th century.
  • The sculpture was created by a famous artist.
  • The cake was baked by the local bakery.
  • They live in a house built in the 1960s.
  • She received a letter written by her best friend.

USE 9: To form a Nominal Compound

  • The worn-out shoes needed replacing.
  • The broken-hearted girl sought solace in her friends.
  • The forbidden fruit tempted the curious child.
  • The lost-and-found section contained various items.
  • The grown-up children visited their parents.
  • The newlyweds went on their honeymoon.
  • The used-car salesman offered me a good deal.
  • The closed-door policy affected the company’s productivity.
  • The left-handed pitcher was known for his curveball.
  • It is a well-known fact.

USE 10: To convey a causative implication following the verbs ‘have’ or ‘get,’ signifying the act of causing something to be done by someone.

  • She had her car washed yesterday.
  • They got their house painted last summer.
  • He had his report completed by noon.
  • We got the window fixed last week.
  • The company had its products delivered on time.
  • She got her hair styled for the party.
  • They had their fence repaired after the storm.
  • He got his passport renewed before the trip.
  • I had my bike serviced recently.
  • The team got their project approved by the board.

Some Other Examples Of Past Participles

  • The melted ice cream created a sticky mess.
  • The fallen leaves covered the ground in autumn.
  • A shaken economy requires careful stabilization.
  • The granted permission allowed them to enter.
  • The sunken ship remains a popular diving spot.
  • The opened window let in a refreshing breeze.
  • The scattered papers needed organizing.
  • The chosen path led to unexpected opportunities.
  • The blossomed flowers added color to the garden.
  • The exhausted runner collapsed at the finish line.
  • The confused expression indicated a lack of understanding.
  • The twisted truth caused widespread confusion.
  • The increased demand led to higher prices.
  • The granted wishes brought joy to many.
  • The closed curtains darkened the room.

Use Of Perfect Participles

A Perfect Participle, formed by adding “having” or “having been” with the past participle, indicates an action that was completed before another action or a specific point in time.

USE 1: When describing two sequential actions carried out by the same person one after the other.

  • Having finished his dinner, he went for a walk. [The same doer]
  • Having completed the assignment, she submitted it to her professor. [The same doer]
  • Having cooked breakfast, I cleaned the kitchen. [The same doer]
  • Having missed the bus, she called for a taxi. [The same doer]
  • Having read the book, he shared his thoughts with the book club. [The same doer]
  • Having taken a shower, she got dressed for the party. [The same doer]
  • Having completed the marathon, he celebrated with his teammates. [The same doer]
  • Having watched the movie, they discussed its plot and characters. [The same doer]
  • Having packed his suitcase, he prepared for his trip. [The same doer]
  • Having written the report, she proofread it for errors. [The same doer]

USE 2: In the scenario of two actions performed by different individuals, one after the other.

  • The baby having cried, the parents rushed to the nursery.
  • The alarm having sounded, the students assembled in the courtyard.
  • The storm having passed, the workers resumed their tasks.
  • The match being struck, the candles flickered to life.
  • The music having stopped, the audience erupted into applause.
  • The train having departed, the commuters dispersed to their platforms.
  • The chef having prepared the ingredients, the waiters began serving the dishes.
  • The speech having concluded, the audience started to leave the auditorium.
  • The news having spread, the neighbors gathered to discuss the event.

Gerund Vs Participle

She enjoys singing in the shower.Singing in the shower, she feels relaxed.
They dislike arguing in public.Arguing in public makes them uncomfortable.
The children are fond of playing outdoors.Playing outdoors, the children forget time.
He admitted lying about his whereabouts.Lying about his whereabouts, he felt guilty.
Jane regrets leaving her keys at home.Leaving her keys at home caused her trouble.
They avoid discussing politics at dinner.Discussing politics at dinner ruins their mood.
The professor encouraged participating in class.Participating in class improved their grades.
She imagined travelling to exotic places.Travelling to exotic places excited her immensely.
They started learning a new language.Learning a new language was challenging at first.
He considered quitting his job.Quitting his job was a difficult decision.
The team practiced shooting hoops.Shooting hoops during practice improved their skills.
Despite the rain, they continued playing soccer.Despite the rain, they continued playing soccer.
She apologized for forgetting the appointment.Forgetting the appointment, she felt embarrassed.
The chef recommended adding salt to taste.Adding salt to taste enhances the flavors.
I recall meeting her at the conference.Meeting her at the conference was a memorable experience.

Participles Exercise

A. Fill in the blanks with the Present Participle or Past Participle forms of the verbs given in the brackets:

  1. They were __________ by the stunning view of the mountains. (amaze)
  2. The ________ cake was delicious. (bake)
  3. The ________ children played happily in the park. (laugh)
  4. The ________ books were neatly arranged on the shelf. (read)
  5. The ________ flowers added beauty to the garden. (bloom)
  6. The ________ child won the singing competition. (talent)
  7. The ________ manuscript was discovered in the library. (ancient)
  8. The ________ actor received an award for his performance. (talented)
  9. The ________ bananas were used to make the smoothie. (ripe)
  10. The ________ car was parked in the driveway. (polish)


  1. They were amazed by the stunning view of the mountains.
  2. The baked cake was delicious.
  3. The laughing children played happily in the park.
  4. The read books were neatly arranged on the shelf.
  5. The blooming flowers added beauty to the garden.
  6. The talented child won the singing competition.
  7. The ancient manuscript was discovered in the library.
  8. The talented actor received an award for his performance.
  9. The ripe bananas were used to make the smoothie.
  10. The polished car was parked in the driveway.

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