Conjunctions are words used to join sentences, phrases or clauses.
Conjunctions that join words or phrases: I need a pen and a pencil. I need a pen or a pencil. I need not a pen but a pencil. I need a pen as well as a pencil of good quality.
Types of Conjunctions
Conjunctions that join the clauses are subdivided into two main classes –
They are used to connect sentences, phrases or clauses of equal rank. Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four types –
- Cumulative – and, both….and, also, too, as well as, not only….but also, no less than
- Alternative – or, either….or, neither….nor, otherwise, else
- Adversative – but, still, yet, however, nevertheless, only, whereas,
- Illative – so, for, therefore, then
They are used to connect clauses which are not of equal rank. One clause depends on the other for completing its meaning. Subordinating Conjunctions denote time, place, reason, effect, purpose, manner, condition, comparison, apposition and contrast.
- Apposition – that, why, how
- Reason – as, because
- Purpose – that, so that, in order that
- Effect – that
- Condition – if, provided
- Contrast – though, although
- Comparison – as, as much as, no less than
- Manner – as, so far as
- Time – before, after, when
- Place – where, wherever
Examples of Co-ordinating Conjunctions
Cumulative or Copulative Conjunctions
- Rini and Sita went to school.
- The king died and his son ascended the throne.
- He played well and got the prize.
- He got the medicine and left the place.
- They both love and respect this great man.
- Both he and his brother will go.
- He is beautiful and you also.
- She is an idler and a gambler too.
- The boy, as well as the girl, is guilty.
- Dipali as well as her brother is honest.
- The teacher, as well as his students, was invited.
- Men like not only wealth but also social position.
- Tom plays not only the drum but also the flute.
- She was not only accused but also convicted.
- Not only he but his mother also will go there.
- Kamal, no less than his father, is an experienced man.
- Make haste, or you will be late.
- “Do or die”.
- Read or you will fail.
- I shall go there or they will come here.
- Either she or her parents did this work.
- Either my father or I must go.
- He could neither stand up nor lie down.
- Nina is neither foolish nor ignorant.
- Neither he nor his father was guilty.
- I will not give him this pen, nor even his sister.
- Leave the place, otherwise, you will be caught.
- Do what you are told, otherwise, you will be punished.
- Try hard otherwise, you will fail.
- Run, else you will be late.
- Tony is poor but honest.
- He is sad but hopeful.
- Pinaki tried hard, but he failed.
- She is learned but very rude.
- I can change but I can not die.
- I would help you, only I am too busy.
- The rich are making merry, whereas the poor are dying of starvation.
- He is rich whereas his brother is poor.
- Tulika is very rich, but still (yet) he is not contented.
- The matter was painful, still, he did not complain.
- He worked hard, still, he failed.
- Everyone opposed me, nevertheless, I did not lose heart.
- He was very much annoyed, however, he kept quiet.
- Everyone was against her; however (nevertheless), she stuck to his point.
- India played well, yet they lost the match.
- Life is full of tears yet none wishes to die.
- Tapas Sen is a brave man, so he does not feel afraid.
- Rahim was ill, so he could not come to school.
- He tried hard so he could win the game.
- I am not going out, for Rima will come now.
- Piyush was found guilty, therefore he was hanged.
- This man is dishonest, therefore Piyali will not deal with him.
- The air is cool now, for it is raining.
- I see, then, we should start at once.
Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions
- We know that he is honest.
- He said that he would go.
- Tom told us that the train had left the station.
- Tori made a promise that she would return soon.
- I don’t know why she has come.
- I don’t know how she has done this work alone.
- Rokul deserves the reward because she has worked hard.
- He cannot go out because he is ill.
- As she was ill, she could not come to school.
- As I am ill, I cannot go.
- Since I am ill, I cannot go there.
- We work so that we may earn a living.
- Men work that (so that) they may earn a living.
- Shut the door so that the child may not go out.
- I study hard so that I may pass the examination.
- Amal took medicine in order that he might get well.
- Tom talked so much that his voice became hoarse.
- It rained so heavily that paddy could not grow.
- You lie so often that nobody believes you.
- If you come, we shall go there.
- He will die if he takes poison.
- You will fail unless you work hard.
- Ask him whether he will come tomorrow.
- Though (Although) she was ill, she did his duties.
- Though he is poor, he is honest.
- Bishal finished first though he began late.
- Although it was cold, the man did not light a fire.
- Although it was hard, he did it.
- Rich as he is, he is not happy.
- The boy will never succeed, however hard he works.
- This ripe mango is as sweet as honey.
- This mango is not so sweet as honey.
- She is as clever as I (am).
- She likes you as much as I (like you).
- He loves action no less than fiction.
- He is taller than my sister.
- The earth is larger than the moon.
Degree of Manner
- Men will reap, as they sow.
- It happened precisely as I told you.
- This is not right, so far as I can find out.
- This is not true, so far as I can see.
- I shall leave the room as soon as my father returns home.
- She had worked hard before she succeeded.
- The patient had died before the doctor came.
- He came after I had left the place.
- He returned home after he had done office work.
- Alisha came when I was getting ready to go out.
- He came when I was there.
- Rita came here while it was raining.
- Make haste while the sun shines.
- No one can harm us as long as (so long as) we are united.
- Stay as long as you like.
- Mini started as soon as I reached there.
- Wait till the train stops.
- Wait till the train arrives.
- I shall read this book until my father comes back.
- Do not detrain until the train stops.
- I shall go where he will go.
- You may go where you like.
- I shall find her out wherever she lies.
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