An Adverb is a word that usually modifies a Verb, an Adjective, or another Adverb.
However, in some cases, it can modify any part of speech or phrase or a whole sentence. It describes when where, why, how how much, etc.
Read the following sentences :
 The train arrived late.
 She has a very beautiful face.
 She sings extremely well.
In sentence 1, late modifies the Verb arrived.
In sentence 2, very modifies the Adjective beautiful.
In sentence 3, extremely modifies the Adverb well.
These words late, very, and extremely are Adverbs.
CASES WHERE AN ADVERB CAN MODIFY
| a noun||: Even a child can do this.|
| a pronoun||: Only he was absent.|
| an adjective||: The girl is very beautiful.|
| a verb||: The old man walks slowly.|
| an adverb||: Don’t do this too quickly.|
| a preposition||: He came here long before the time.|
| a conjunction||: I like her just for her simplicity.|
| a determiner||: He has hardly any friends.|
| a phrase||: This dress is totally out of fashion.|
| a clause||: He nodded to her just when she came.|
| a sentence||: Unfortunately, he failed to catch the train.|
TYPES OF ADVERBS
1) Simple Adverbs
 Adverbs of Time
 Adverbs of Place
 Adverbs of Manner
 Adverbs of Quantity
 Adverbs of Cause-Effect
 Adverbs of Purpose
 Adverbs of Order
 Adverbs of Affirmation
 Adverbs of Negation
 Adverbs of Degree: Intensifier/Downtoner
2) Relative Adverbs / Conjunctive Adverbs: Relative adverbs denote their relation with the antecedent whereas, Conjunctive Adverbs join two clauses without the antecedent.
3) Interrogative Adverbs: To start a wh-question to gain information.
ADVERBS OF TIME
When or for how long the action is done.
| WHEN?||He started early.|
The police arrived late.
| HOW LONG?/ HOW OFTEN?||Do it now.|
He is always busy.
She seldom makes mistakes.
He comes here frequently.
ADVERBS OF TIME: now, then, ago, again, already, always, before, after, since, seldom, often, soon, late, afterwards, today, tomorrow, yesterday, sometimes, ever, never, early, formerly, presently, recently, immediately, instantly, once, twice, thrice, etc.
ADVERBS OF PLACE
Where the action is done
| WHERE?||Come here. / Go there.|
Go away. / Go anywhere.
Wait here for the stranger.
| WHERE FROM?||This was collected locally.|
This question is out of the syllabus.
The stranger came from outside the country.
ADVERBS OF PLACE: here, there, near, far, away, abroad, above, below, down, out, up, anywhere, everywhere, in, on, inside, outside, within, without, etc.
ADVERBS OF MANNER
How the action is done
| HOW?||The fat man walks slowly.|
Do your homework quickly.
He can speak English fluently.
| IN WHAT MANNER?||The boy was treated badly.|
You have done well.
Read the passage aloud.
ADVERBS OF MANNER: ill, well, thus, and adjective + ly.
The largest class of Adverbs of Manner comes from Adjectives ending in -ly, such as: clearly, closely, correctly, bravely, badly, sadly, slowly, quickly, luckily, etc.
ADVERBS OF DEGREE
How much or to what extent the action is done
| HOW MUCH?||I am quite happy.|
She is fully prepared.
He is greatly admired.
| TO WHAT EXTENT?||You are partly right.|
The fruit is almost ripe.
She is far better today.
ADVERBS OF DEGREE: almost, a little, quite, enough, very, much, too, so, somewhat, rather, partly, fully, wholly, completely, totally, entirely, poorly, deeply, greatly, etc.
ADVERBS OF CAUSE-EFFECT
Why the action is done
| CAUSE||He is hence absent.|
| EFFECT||He, therefore, left the school.|
Accordingly, I had to attend the meeting.
Consequently, he won the prize.
Incidentally, he got the ticket.
ADVERBS OF CAUSE-EFFECT: hence, therefore, so, accordingly, consequently, etc.
ADVERBS OF PURPOSE
For which the action is done
|FOR WHICH||We eat in order that we may live.|
We read that (in order that) we learn.
He works hard so that he can succeed.
ADVERBS OF PURPOSE: that, so that, in order that.
ADVERBS OF ORDER
In which order the action is done
|IN WHICH ORDER||He came here first.|
She was second in rank.
Firstly, take a mango.
Then wash it properly.
Lastly, he was convinced.
ADVERBS OF ORDER: first, second, third, fourth, firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, last, lastly.
ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION
To express affirmation
|SUPPORTING||Yes, I know it.|
Yes, you are right.
ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION: yes, at all, perhaps, possibly, probably.
ADVERBS OF NEGATION
To express negation
|DENYING||I do not know him.|
He did not come here.
He never failed the exam.
ADVERBS OF NEGATION: not, never, not at all
ADVERBS OF DEGREE: INTENSIFIER
To intensify an action
|INTENSIFYING||Surely, you are mistaken.|
He would certainly go there.
I really don’t know.
INTENSIFIER: actually, certainly, surely, definitely, really, absolutely, thoroughly, utterly, very much, indeed.
ADVERBS OF DEGREE: DOWNTONER
To downtone an action
|DOWNTONER||I can hardly / scarcely see it.|
This soup is rather hot.
This is somewhat wrong.
He can barely make both ends meet.
It was nearly a month ago.
DOWNTONER: hardly, scarcely, barely, nearly, rather, somewhat.
To denote their relation with the antecedent
|RELATING WITH THE ANTECEDENT||This is the place where he lives. [Rel. Clause]|
No one knows the time when he will come. [Rel. Clause]
I know the reason why he did it. [Rel. Clause]
I don’t know the process how he did it. [Rel. Clause]
To join two Clauses without the Antecedent
|JOINING WITHOUT THE ANTECEDENT||This is where he lives. [Adv. Clause]|
You may go where you like. [Adv. Clause]
You shall go when he comes. [Adv. Clause]
I know why he did it. [Noun Clause]
I don’t know how he did it. [Noun Clause]
He came here while I was eating.[Adv. Clause]
To start a wh-question to gain information
|(1) INT. ADV. OF PLACE|
 INT. ADV. OF TIME
(3) INT. ADV. OF REASON
[4) INT. ADV. OF MANNER
 INT. ADV. OF NUMBER
 INT. ADV. OF QUANTITY
 INT. ADV. OF DEGREE
 INT. ADV. OF FREQUENCY
|Where is the book?|
When will you go?
Why are you late?
How did you do this?
How many boys are there?
How much salt is there?
How far was the report true?
How often do you visit the temple?
INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS: where, when, why, how, how much, how many, how far, how long
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN: who, whose, whom, what
SAME WORD USED AS AN ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB
The same word may sometimes be an Adjective or an Adverb according to use
|He is an early riser.||early||He rises early.|
|He is a fast runner.||fast||He runs fast.|
|It is hard work.||hard||He works hard.|
|This is a long story.||long||He waited long.|
|He speaks in a loud voice.||loud||Don’t talk so loud.|
|He is the best boy in the class.||best||Try your best.|
|He is my only son.||only||He did it once only.|
|I have enough food.||enough||She sings well enough.|
ADVERBS WITH TWO FORMS
Some Adverbs have different meanings used with (ly) and without (-ly).
|hard||He hit the ball hard.|
|hardly||He hardly can do this.|
|high||The bird flew high./ The prices are running high.|
|highly||He was highly placed.|
|late||You have come late.|
|lately||Lately, he has given up smoking.|
POSITION OF ADVERBS
 at the beginning
 before the subject
(3) asking wh-questions
 for emphasis
 before the main verb
 after ‘be’ main verb
 before ‘have’ main verb
 after the auxiliaries
 between two auxiliaries
 some special uses
 after the intransitive verb
 after any object
 adverbs of manner, means and instruments
| at the beginning||Down went the Titanic.|
| before the subject||Happily, he came in time.|
| asking wh-questions||Where have you been?|
| for emphasis||Again and again, I have warned you.|
| before the main verb||I often go there.|
He hardly comes here.
She never went abroad.
He always speaks the truth.
| after ‘be’ main verb||He is rarely late in school.|
She is often late for school.
They are always present at the meeting.
She is never negligent in her duties.
He is usually busy.
| before ‘have’ main verb||We usually have breakfast at 8 a.m.|
| after the auxiliary verb||He will surely win the prize.|
I shall never go there.
The wind has suddenly dropped.
| between two auxiliaries||He has totally been ruined.|
| before the transitive verb||She frequently told me this.|
He always supported me.
| some adverbs of time before the verbs they modify [ever, never, quite, seldom, often, sometimes, always]||His wife never cooks.|
Have you ever tried it?
I quite agree with you. She seldom comes here.
I have often told him to read clearly.
| before an adjective or another adverb.||The book is very interesting.|
The dog is quite dead.
Do not walk so fast.
| only, merely, not, never-before the word they modify||I have slept only one hour.|
He merely asked my name.
I never said it.
| ‘enough’ after the word it modifies.||He spoke loud enough to be heard.|
They were rough enough to deal with.
| after the intransitive verb||They played well.|
He went away silently.
The girl sang sweetly.
| after the object of the verb||We love our country dearly.|
He did it nicely / quickly.
I feel it keenly I heartily.
| adverbs of manner means and The villagers lived peacefully. instruments||They go to the office by bus / by train.|
He examined it microscopically.
ORDER OF ADVERBS
The normal order of placing Adverbs in case of two or more adverbs is Manner(M), Place(P) and Time(T)
| Manner and Time||He worked hard (M) last night (T).|
| Place and Time||She went there (M) early (T).|
| Manner, Place and Time||She gang sweetly (M) at the party (P) last evening (T).|
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS
DEGREE OF ADVERBS
 He runs fast.
 He did well.
 Do it carefully
 He runs faster.
 He did better.
 Do it more carefully.
 He runs fastest.
 He did best.
 Do it most carefully.
RULES OF DEGREE OF ADVERBS
RULE 1: Some Adverbs take -er in Comparative and -est in Superlative Degrees.
RULE 2: Some Adverbs take irregular forms in a Comparative degree.
|far||farther / further||farthest / furthest|
RULE 3: Adverbs ending in -ly place more and most before the adverb in Comparative and Superlative degrees.
|clearly||more clearly||most clearly|
|carefully||more carefully||most carefully|
|beautifully||more beautifully||most beautifully|
|easily||more easily||most easily|
|quickly||more quickly||most quickly|
|rapidly||more rapidly||most rapidly|
FORMATION OF ADVERBS
RULE 1: Most of the Adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives. [Adjectives + ly = Adverbs]
RULE 3: For Adjectives ending in le: e is dropped and y is added.
RULE 3: A few Adjectives ending in e: e is dropped and -ly is added.
RULE 4: A few Adjectives ending in ll : only y is added.
RULE 5: For Adjectives ending in y: y changes into i and -ly is added.
RULE 6: For Adjectives ending in ic : -ally is added.
RULE 7: few Adjectives are changed to form new words as Adverbs.
|Adjectives||Adverbs (New Words)|
|bad||badly – worse – worst|
|good||well – better – best|
Pick out the Adverbs from the following sentences :
- The girl sings well.
- I certainly know this.
- Probably he is mistaken.
- Tell me the story quickly.
- Each of the boys broke the stick easily.
- The boys did not quarrel again.
- Are you quite sure?
- Do not walk so fast.
- Too many cooks spoil the broth.
- The scientist knows it better.
- We could see the sight clearly.
- We got up from bed very early.
- She was rather disappointed.
- Little Rabi seldom saw his father.
- Sir Asutosh was always the first boy.
Insert the given Adverbs in the right positions and rewrite the sentences:
- The boy arrived in the class. (late)
- I know the answer. (already)
- I have told him to come here. (often)
- He comes in time. (never)
- He is better now. (far)
- Will he be there? (still
- You can guess the situation. (only)
- I could work out two sums. (only)
- You are mistaken. (surely)
- These mangoes are ripe. (almost)
- They could recognize me. (hardly)
- They are busy. (rather)
- He is fifty years old. (nearly)
- She was disappointed. (a little)
- The customer is happy. (not at all)
You Asked, We Listened – List of All Grammar Topics Updated 😍😍