Adverbs

An Adverb is a word that usually modifies a Verb, an Adjective, or another Adverb.

However, in some cases, it can modify any part of speech or phrase or a whole sentence. It describes when where, why, how how much, etc.

Adverbs

Read the following sentences :

[1] The train arrived late.
[2] She has a very beautiful face.
[3] She sings extremely well.

In sentence 1, late modifies the Verb arrived.
In sentence 2, very modifies the Adjective beautiful.
In sentence 3, extremely modifies the Adverb well.

These words late, very, and extremely are Adverbs.


CASES WHERE AN ADVERB CAN MODIFY

Adverb ModifiesExamples
[1] a noun: Even a child can do this.
[2] a pronoun: Only he was absent.
[3] an adjective: The girl is very beautiful.
[4] a verb: The old man walks slowly.
[5] an adverb: Don’t do this too quickly.
[6] a preposition: He came here long before the time.
[7] a conjunction: I like her just for her simplicity.
[8] a determiner: He has hardly any friends.
[9] a phrase: This dress is totally out of fashion.
[10] a clause: He nodded to her just when she came.
[11] a sentence: Unfortunately, he failed to catch the train.

TYPES OF ADVERBS


1) Simple Adverbs

[1] Adverbs of Time
[2] Adverbs of Place
[3] Adverbs of Manner
[4] Adverbs of Quantity
[5] Adverbs of Cause-Effect
[6] Adverbs of Purpose
[7] Adverbs of Order
[8] Adverbs of Affirmation
[9] Adverbs of Negation
[10] Adverbs of Degree: Intensifier/Downtoner

2) Relative Adverbs / Conjunctive Adverbs: Relative adverbs denote their relation with the antecedent whereas, Conjunctive Adverbs join two clauses without the antecedent.

3) Interrogative Adverbs: To start a wh-question to gain information.


SIMPLE ADVERBS


ADVERBS OF TIME


When or for how long the action is done.

TimeExamples
[1] WHEN?He started early.
The police arrived late.
[2] HOW LONG?/ HOW OFTEN?Do it now.
He is always busy.
She seldom makes mistakes.
He comes here frequently.

ADVERBS OF TIME: now, then, ago, again, already, always, before, after, since, seldom, often, soon, late, afterwards, today, tomorrow, yesterday, sometimes, ever, never, early, formerly, presently, recently, immediately, instantly, once, twice, thrice, etc.


ADVERBS OF PLACE


Where the action is done

PlaceExamples
[1] WHERE?Come here. / Go there.
Go away. / Go anywhere.
Wait here for the stranger.
[2] WHERE FROM?This was collected locally.
This question is out of the syllabus.
The stranger came from outside the country.

ADVERBS OF PLACE: here, there, near, far, away, abroad, above, below, down, out, up, anywhere, everywhere, in, on, inside, outside, within, without, etc.


ADVERBS OF MANNER


How the action is done

MannerExamples
[1] HOW?The fat man walks slowly.
Do your homework quickly.
He can speak English fluently.
[2] IN WHAT MANNER?The boy was treated badly.
You have done well.
Read the passage aloud.

ADVERBS OF MANNER: ill, well, thus, and adjective + ly.
The largest class of Adverbs of Manner comes from Adjectives ending in -ly, such as: clearly, closely, correctly, bravely, badly, sadly, slowly, quickly, luckily, etc.


ADVERBS OF DEGREE


How much or to what extent the action is done

DegreeExamples
[1] HOW MUCH?I am quite happy.
She is fully prepared.
He is greatly admired.
[2] TO WHAT EXTENT?You are partly right.
The fruit is almost ripe.
She is far better today.

ADVERBS OF DEGREE: almost, a little, quite, enough, very, much, too, so, somewhat, rather, partly, fully, wholly, completely, totally, entirely, poorly, deeply, greatly, etc.


ADVERBS OF CAUSE-EFFECT


Why the action is done

Cause-EffectExamples
[1] CAUSEHe is hence absent.
[2] EFFECTHe, therefore, left the school.
Accordingly, I had to attend the meeting.
Consequently, he won the prize.
Incidentally, he got the ticket.

ADVERBS OF CAUSE-EFFECT: hence, therefore, so, accordingly, consequently, etc.


ADVERBS OF PURPOSE


For which the action is done

PurposeExamples
FOR WHICHWe eat in order that we may live.
We read that (in order that) we learn.
He works hard so that he can succeed.

ADVERBS OF PURPOSE: that, so that, in order that.


ADVERBS OF ORDER


In which order the action is done

OrderExamples
IN WHICH ORDERHe came here first.
She was second in rank.
Firstly, take a mango.
Then wash it properly.
Lastly, he was convinced.

ADVERBS OF ORDER: first, second, third, fourth, firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, last, lastly.


ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION


To express affirmation

AffirmationExamples
SUPPORTINGYes, I know it.
Yes, you are right.

ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION: yes, at all, perhaps, possibly, probably.


ADVERBS OF NEGATION


To express negation

NegationExamples
DENYINGI do not know him.
He did not come here.
He never failed the exam.

ADVERBS OF NEGATION: not, never, not at all


ADVERBS OF DEGREE: INTENSIFIER


To intensify an action

IntensifierExamples
INTENSIFYINGSurely, you are mistaken.
He would certainly go there.
I really don’t know.

INTENSIFIER: actually, certainly, surely, definitely, really, absolutely, thoroughly, utterly, very much, indeed.


ADVERBS OF DEGREE: DOWNTONER


To downtone an action

DowntonerExamples
DOWNTONERI can hardly / scarcely see it.
This soup is rather hot.
This is somewhat wrong.
He can barely make both ends meet.
It was nearly a month ago.

DOWNTONER: hardly, scarcely, barely, nearly, rather, somewhat.


RELATIVE ADVERBS


To denote their relation with the antecedent

Relative AdverbsExamples
RELATING WITH THE ANTECEDENTThis is the place where he lives. [Rel. Clause]
No one knows the time when he will come. [Rel. Clause]
I know the reason why he did it. [Rel. Clause]
I don’t know the process how he did it. [Rel. Clause]

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS


To join two Clauses without the Antecedent

Conjunctive AdverbsExamples
JOINING WITHOUT THE ANTECEDENTThis is where he lives. [Adv. Clause]
You may go where you like. [Adv. Clause]
You shall go when he comes. [Adv. Clause]
I know why he did it. [Noun Clause]
I don’t know how he did it. [Noun Clause]
He came here while I was eating.[Adv. Clause]

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS


To start a wh-question to gain information

INT. AdverbExamples
(1) INT. ADV. OF PLACE
[2] INT. ADV. OF TIME
(3) INT. ADV. OF REASON
[4) INT. ADV. OF MANNER
[5] INT. ADV. OF NUMBER
[6] INT. ADV. OF QUANTITY
[7] INT. ADV. OF DEGREE
[8] INT. ADV. OF FREQUENCY
Where is the book?
When will you go?
Why are you late?
How did you do this?
How many boys are there?
How much salt is there?
How far was the report true?
How often do you visit the temple?

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS: where, when, why, how, how much, how many, how far, how long

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN: who, whose, whom, what


SAME WORD USED AS AN ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB


The same word may sometimes be an Adjective or an Adverb according to use

AdjectivesWordsAdverbs
He is an early riser.earlyHe rises early.
He is a fast runner.fastHe runs fast.
It is hard work.hardHe works hard.
This is a long story.longHe waited long.
He speaks in a loud voice.loudDon’t talk so loud.
He is the best boy in the class.bestTry your best.
He is my only son.onlyHe did it once only.
I have enough food.enoughShe sings well enough.

ADVERBS WITH TWO FORMS


Some Adverbs have different meanings used with (ly) and without (-ly).

hardHe hit the ball hard.
hardlyHe hardly can do this.
highThe bird flew high./ The prices are running high.
highlyHe was highly placed.
lateYou have come late.
latelyLately, he has given up smoking.

POSITION OF ADVERBS


FRONT POSITION
[1] at the beginning
[2] before the subject
(3) asking wh-questions
[4] for emphasis

MID POSITION
[1] before the main verb
[2] after ‘be’ main verb
[3] before ‘have’ main verb
[4] after the auxiliaries
[5] between two auxiliaries
[6] some special uses

END POSITION
[1] after the intransitive verb
[2] after any object
[3] adverbs of manner, means and instruments

FRONT POSITION

PositionExamples
[1] at the beginningDown went the Titanic.
[2] before the subjectHappily, he came in time.
[3] asking wh-questionsWhere have you been?
[4] for emphasisAgain and again, I have warned you.

MID-POSITION

PositionExamples
[1] before the main verbI often go there.
He hardly comes here.
She never went abroad.
He always speaks the truth.
[2] after ‘be’ main verbHe is rarely late in school.
She is often late for school.
They are always present at the meeting.
She is never negligent in her duties.
He is usually busy.
[3] before ‘have’ main verbWe usually have breakfast at 8 a.m.
[4] after the auxiliary verbHe will surely win the prize.
I shall never go there.
The wind has suddenly dropped.
[5] between two auxiliariesHe has totally been ruined.
[6] before the transitive verbShe frequently told me this.
He always supported me.
[7] some adverbs of time before the verbs they modify [ever, never, quite, seldom, often, sometimes, always]His wife never cooks.
Have you ever tried it?
I quite agree with you. She seldom comes here.
I have often told him to read clearly.
[8] before an adjective or another adverb.The book is very interesting.
The dog is quite dead.
Do not walk so fast.
[9] only, merely, not, never-before the word they modifyI have slept only one hour.
He merely asked my name.
I never said it.
[10] ‘enough’ after the word it modifies.He spoke loud enough to be heard.
They were rough enough to deal with.

END POSITION

PositionExamples
[1] after the intransitive verbThey played well.
He went away silently.
The girl sang sweetly.
[2] after the object of the verbWe love our country dearly.
He did it nicely / quickly.
I feel it keenly I heartily.
[3] adverbs of manner means and The villagers lived peacefully. instrumentsThey go to the office by bus / by train.
He examined it microscopically.

ORDER OF ADVERBS


The normal order of placing Adverbs in case of two or more adverbs is Manner(M), Place(P) and Time(T)

OrderExamples
[1] Manner and TimeHe worked hard (M) last night (T).
[2] Place and TimeShe went there (M) early (T).
[3] Manner, Place and TimeShe gang sweetly (M) at the party (P) last evening (T).

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS


DEGREE OF ADVERBS


POSITIVE DEGREE
[1] He runs fast.
[2] He did well.
[3] Do it carefully

COMPARATIVE DEGREE
[1] He runs faster.
[2] He did better.
[3] Do it more carefully.

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE
[1] He runs fastest.
[2] He did best.
[3] Do it most carefully.


RULES OF DEGREE OF ADVERBS


RULE 1: Some Adverbs take -er in Comparative and -est in Superlative Degrees.

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
fastfasterfastest
longlongerlongest
nearnearernearest
shortshortershortest
latelaterlatest/last
quickquickerquickest

RULE 2: Some Adverbs take irregular forms in a Comparative degree.

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
Well/goodbetterbest
badly/badworseworst
farfarther / furtherfarthest / furthest
muchmoremost
littlelessleast

RULE 3: Adverbs ending in -ly place more and most before the adverb in Comparative and Superlative degrees.

PositiveComparativeSuperlative
clearlymore clearlymost clearly
carefullymore carefullymost carefully
beautifullymore beautifullymost beautifully
easilymore easilymost easily
quicklymore quicklymost quickly
rapidlymore rapidlymost rapidly

FORMATION OF ADVERBS


RULE 1: Most of the Adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives. [Adjectives + ly = Adverbs]

AdjectivesAdverbs
badbadly
sadsadly
bravebravely
hardhardly
honesthonestly
kindkindly
cruelcruelly
clevercleverly
certaincertainly
clearclearly
correctcorrectly
deepdeeply

RULE 3: For Adjectives ending in le: e is dropped and y is added.

AdjectivesAdverbs
singlesingly
doubledoubly
horriblehorribly
possiblepossibly
probableprobably
suitablesuitably
terribleterribly
wholewholly

RULE 3: A few Adjectives ending in e: e is dropped and -ly is added.

AdjectivesAdverbs
dueduly
truetruly
undueunduly
wholewholly

RULE 4: A few Adjectives ending in ll : only y is added.

AdjectivesAdverbs
fullfully
dulldully

RULE 5: For Adjectives ending in y: y changes into i and -ly is added.

AdjectivesAdverbs
easyeasily
lazylazily
heavyheavily
happyhappily
noisynoisily
luckyluckily
readyreadily

RULE 6: For Adjectives ending in ic : -ally is added.

AdjectivesAdverbs
automaticautomatically
economiceconomically
tragictragically
basicbasically

RULE 7: few Adjectives are changed to form new words as Adverbs.

AdjectivesAdverbs (New Words)
badbadly – worse – worst
goodwell – better – best

ADVERB EXERCISE


Pick out the Adverbs from the following sentences :

  • The girl sings well.
  • I certainly know this.
  • Probably he is mistaken.
  • Tell me the story quickly.
  • Each of the boys broke the stick easily.
  • The boys did not quarrel again.
  • Are you quite sure?
  • Do not walk so fast.
  • Too many cooks spoil the broth.
  • The scientist knows it better.
  • We could see the sight clearly.
  • We got up from bed very early.
  • She was rather disappointed.
  • Little Rabi seldom saw his father.
  • Sir Asutosh was always the first boy.

Insert the given Adverbs in the right positions and rewrite the sentences:

  • The boy arrived in the class. (late)
  • I know the answer. (already)
  • I have told him to come here. (often)
  • He comes in time. (never)
  • He is better now. (far)
  • Will he be there? (still
  • You can guess the situation. (only)
  • I could work out two sums. (only)
  • You are mistaken. (surely)
  • These mangoes are ripe. (almost)
  • They could recognize me. (hardly)
  • They are busy. (rather)
  • He is fifty years old. (nearly)
  • She was disappointed. (a little)
  • The customer is happy. (not at all)

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