4 Types of Moods in English Grammar

The Mood is the manner of using a verb in a sentence. Different Types of Moods in English Grammar are as follows.

NOTE: For Advanced Learners: In traditional grammar, Moods are explained in three ways- (1) Indicative (2) Imperative, and (3) Subjunctive.

But modern grammar calls the Indicative Mood the Declarative Mood and adds the Interrogative Mood too. So we can classify the Mood into four categories: Indicative, Interrogative, Imperative, and Subjunctive.

4 Types of Moods in English Grammar

Types of Moods


  • Declarative or Indicative
  • Interrogative
  • Imperative
  • Subjunctive

Declarative Moods

The Declarative Moods include an Assertive sentence, an Optative sentence and an Exclamatory sentence.

UsesExamples
to state a factRam and Rahim love each other.
to make a promiseI must give you one hundred rupees.
to express an opinionI think she is intelligent.
to put emphasisI do feel for you.
Do come here on my birthday.
to express desire or prayerMay you be happy in life.
May God bless you.
to express emotionWhat a beautiful flower it is!
to express conditionFather will give me a camera if I can do good results in the examination.

NOTE: The Declarative Mood ends with a Full Stop (.) or a note of exclamation (!).

Interrogative Moods

The Interrogative Mood is equal to the Interrogative sentence.

YES/NO QuestionsWH-Questions
Yes/No questions can be answered by saying Yes or No.Wh-questions start with “Wh-words‘ i.e., Who, What, When, Why, etc.
Yes/No questions start with a Helping Verb.The Helping Verbs follow the Wh-words.
Examples: Is he present in class?
Are you going to school?
Have you any cell phone?
Does she take tea in the morning?
Did you see the Russian circus?
Examples: What is your name?
Who will go there?
Whose book is this?
Whom did you meet yesterday?
When do you go to bed at night?

NOTE:

  • The Interrogative Mood ends with a Question Mark (?).
  • Helping Verbs are also called Operators.
  • Who What and Which do not take any helping verb or operator when they are used as the subject.
    • Who said this?
    • What makes you laugh?
    • Which boy dared to do this?

Imperative Moods

The Imperative Mood is equal to the Imperative sentence

2nd Person Imperative

UsesExamples
to give ordersStand up on the bench.
to give adviceGet up early in the morning.
to give instructionBoil the egg for two minutes.
to give directionTurn to the left and go ahead.
to give warningTell the truth or you are dead.
to make requestPlease give me the book.
to make an offerHave a cup of tea.
to make an invitationCome to our house on vacation.
to ask for help, mercy, or an apologySave me! Help!
Have mercy on me.
Excuse me.
to forbid or prohibitKeep off the grass.
Do not smoke on the bus.

1st & 3rd Person Imperatives with ‘Let’

UsesExamples
Let + meLet me do this.
Let + usLet us arrange for a picnic.
Let + himLet him go home.
Let + themLet them speak one by one.

NOTE:

  • The Imperative Mood usually ends with a full stop (.).
  • The Imperative Mood is usually used with 2nd Person in the Present Tense
  • The subject You is usually omitted.
  • The sentence starts with the root form of the Verb. or with Please/Kindly in a polite request.
  • Let’s take the Objective form of pronouns in 1st and 3rd person. (Let me, Let us, Let him, Let them, etc.)

Subjunctive Moods

A subjunctive Mood expresses a proposal or supposition while a Declarative Mood usually states a fact.

Present Subjunctive

UsesExamples
to denote proposal, decision, etc. [‘be’+Past Participle of the main Verb]It is resolved that Mr. Ghosh be removed from school. (not ‘is’)
to express condition [‘be’ as the main verb]If that be the case, we are helpless. (not ‘is’)

Past Subjunctive

UsesExamples
‘were subjunctive’ [‘were’ in all persons]If I were a bird, I’d fly in the sky.
What would you do if you were a king?
after ‘wish’ [‘were’ in all persons]I wish, it were a Sunday.
after ‘as if’, ‘as though’, ‘seem’, ‘like’, ‘behave’ [‘were’ in all persons]He walks as if he were drunk.
He behaves as though he were the lord.

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Conjunctions

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Causative Verbs

Causative Verbs

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