The Mood is the manner of using a verb in a sentence. Different Types of Moods in English Grammar are as follows.
NOTE: For Advanced Learners: In traditional grammar, Moods are explained in three ways- (1) Indicative (2) Imperative, and (3) Subjunctive.
But modern grammar calls the Indicative Mood the Declarative Mood and adds the Interrogative Mood too. So we can classify the Mood into four categories: Indicative, Interrogative, Imperative, and Subjunctive.
Types of Moods
- Declarative or Indicative
The Declarative Moods include an Assertive sentence, an Optative sentence and an Exclamatory sentence.
|to state a fact||Ram and Rahim love each other.|
|to make a promise||I must give you one hundred rupees.|
|to express an opinion||I think she is intelligent.|
|to put emphasis||I do feel for you.|
Do come here on my birthday.
|to express desire or prayer||May you be happy in life.|
May God bless you.
|to express emotion||What a beautiful flower it is!|
|to express condition||Father will give me a camera if I can do good results in the examination.|
NOTE: The Declarative Mood ends with a Full Stop (.) or a note of exclamation (!).
The Interrogative Mood is equal to the Interrogative sentence.
|Yes/No questions can be answered by saying Yes or No.||Wh-questions start with “Wh-words‘ i.e., Who, What, When, Why, etc.|
|Yes/No questions start with a Helping Verb.||The Helping Verbs follow the Wh-words.|
|Examples: Is he present in class?|
Are you going to school?
Have you any cell phone?
Does she take tea in the morning?
Did you see the Russian circus?
|Examples: What is your name?|
Who will go there?
Whose book is this?
Whom did you meet yesterday?
When do you go to bed at night?
- The Interrogative Mood ends with a Question Mark (?).
- Helping Verbs are also called Operators.
- Who What and Which do not take any helping verb or operator when they are used as the subject.
- Who said this?
- What makes you laugh?
- Which boy dared to do this?
The Imperative Mood is equal to the Imperative sentence
2nd Person Imperative
|to give orders||Stand up on the bench.|
|to give advice||Get up early in the morning.|
|to give instruction||Boil the egg for two minutes.|
|to give direction||Turn to the left and go ahead.|
|to give warning||Tell the truth or you are dead.|
|to make request||Please give me the book.|
|to make an offer||Have a cup of tea.|
|to make an invitation||Come to our house on vacation.|
|to ask for help, mercy, or an apology||Save me! Help!|
Have mercy on me.
|to forbid or prohibit||Keep off the grass.|
Do not smoke on the bus.
1st & 3rd Person Imperatives with ‘Let’
|Let + me||Let me do this.|
|Let + us||Let us arrange for a picnic.|
|Let + him||Let him go home.|
|Let + them||Let them speak one by one.|
- The Imperative Mood usually ends with a full stop (.).
- The Imperative Mood is usually used with 2nd Person in the Present Tense
- The subject You is usually omitted.
- The sentence starts with the root form of the Verb. or with Please/Kindly in a polite request.
- Let’s take the Objective form of pronouns in 1st and 3rd person. (Let me, Let us, Let him, Let them, etc.)
A subjunctive Mood expresses a proposal or supposition while a Declarative Mood usually states a fact.
|to denote proposal, decision, etc. [‘be’+Past Participle of the main Verb]||It is resolved that Mr. Ghosh be removed from school. (not ‘is’)|
|to express condition [‘be’ as the main verb]||If that be the case, we are helpless. (not ‘is’)|
|‘were subjunctive’ [‘were’ in all persons]||If I were a bird, I’d fly in the sky.|
What would you do if you were a king?
|after ‘wish’ [‘were’ in all persons]||I wish, it were a Sunday.|
|after ‘as if’, ‘as though’, ‘seem’, ‘like’, ‘behave’ [‘were’ in all persons]||He walks as if he were drunk.|
He behaves as though he were the lord.
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