A complete combination of words is referred to as a sentence. However, the sentence itself is formed of small elements called phrases and clauses.
A simple sentence has only one subject and one finite verb to express the meaning.
A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb. On the other hand, A clause is a group of words containing a finite verb.
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Definition of Phrase
A phrase is a group of words without a finite verb. OR
A phrase is a collection of words without a subject or predicate. The phrase is the fundamental building block of English grammar.
Example: Food and water are essential for human survival. He likes to eat sweets. I saw a girl with long hair.
Types of Phrases
There are 9 types of phrases.
- Noun Phrase,
- Verbal Phrase,
- Adjective Phrase,
- Adverbial Phrase,
- Prepositional Phrase,
- Appositive Phrase,
- Infinitive Phrase,
- Gerund Phrase,
- Absolute Phrase
A noun phrase is a group of words that perform the function of a noun.
Examples of Noun Phrases
- The computer screen is cracked.
- His office desk is cluttered.
- The raging storm caused widespread destruction.
- The howling wind kept us awake all night.
- He likes to command others.
- My goal is to save enough money.
Read the following Nouns and Noun Phrases:
|Football is a good game.||Playing football is a good game.|
|Reading is a good habit.||Have you enjoyed reading this novel?|
|Your bed is ready.||Early to bed is a healthy habit.|
A verbal phrase or a phrasal verb is a group of words that work as a verb.
Examples of Verbal Phrases
- I love to dance in the rain.
- I go running for exercise every morning.
- My sister enjoys singing a song in the shower.
- I’m cooking dinner for the family tonight.
- I need to write a letter to my friend who lives abroad.
An Adjective Phrase is a group of words that work as an adjective.
Examples of Adjective Phrases
- I saw a woman with long hair.
- John is a man of kind nature.
- The baby sleeping in the crib is so peaceful.
- A girl with blue eyes met me yesterday.
- The building across the street is a bank.
- The dog with the wagging tail is friendly.
Read the following Adjectives and Adjective Phrases:
|A black coat.||A coat of black colour.|
|A golden crown.||A crown made of gold.|
|A blank page.||A page with no writing on it.|
An Adverbial Phrase is a group of words that work as an adverb.
Examples Adverbial Phrases
- Alisha worked with care. (Carefully)
- Minakshi looked at the tiger with fear. (Fearfully)
- They left the town bag and baggage. (with all one’s belongings)
Read the following Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases:
|Beautifully||in a beautiful style.|
|Everywhere||in all places.|
|Here||at this place.|
|Now||at this very moment.|
|Recently||at present / at a recent date.|
A Prepositional Phrase is a group of words that work as a preposition.
Examples of Prepositional Phrases
- He was absent because of his illness.
- On the ground of safety concerns, the event was cancelled.
- On the pretence of going to the store, she secretly met her lover.
- With a view to improving her health, she started going to the gym regularly.
- By dint of hard work, he was able to achieve his goals.
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An Appositive Phrase is a group of words that is placed next to another word in order to explain it.
Examples of Appositive Phrases
- Tina, my sister, is very ill.
- I love Tony, my faithful dog.
- Lisa, my sister, has secured 1st place in her examination.
An infinitive phrase is formed of an infinitive (to + verb) as well as complements and modifiers. An infinitive’s indirect object acts as its complement, while its adverb acts as its modifier. They can function as nouns, adverbs, or adjectives.
Examples of Infinitive Phrases
- The injured person started to slowly open his mouth.
- To know him is to love him.
A Gerund is a verb that ends in ‘-ing’ and consists of a noun and a verb.
They look like verbs, but they behave like nouns. A gerund, its object, and its modifier make up a gerund phrase. It performs all the tasks of a noun.
Examples of Gerund Phrases
- Working for this company has helped me improve my communication skills. (Subject of the sentence)
- John enjoys knitting sweaters for the children in the orphanage. (Object of the sentence)
An absolute phrase is a combination of a noun and a participle along with other complements and modifiers. It qualifies an entire sentence.
Examples of Absolute Phrase
His lips quivering, he finally gathered the courage to confess.
God willing, we will be able to face all adversities.