Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words used to join sentences, phrases or clauses. Conjunctions that join the clauses are subdivided into two main classes – Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions.

Rules, Definitions, and Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions are as follows –

Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions

They are used to connect sentences, phrases or clauses of equal rank. Coordinating Conjunctions are of four types –

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  • Cumulative – and, both….and, also, too, as well as, not only….but also, no less than
  • Alternative – or, either….or, neither….nor, otherwise, else
  • Adversative – but, still, yet, however, nevertheless, only, whereas,
  • Illative – so, for, therefore, then

Subordinating Conjunctions

They are used to connect clauses that are not of equal rank. One clause depends on another to complete its meaning. Subordinating conjunctions indicate time, place, cause, effect, purpose, manner, condition, comparison, apposition, and contrast.

  • Apposition – that, why, how
  • Reason – as, because
  • Purpose – that, so that, in order that
  • Effect – that
  • Condition – if, provided
  • Contrast – though, although
  • Comparison – as, as much as, no less than
  • Manner – as, so far as
  • Time – before, after, when
  • Place – where, wherever

Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions

Examples of Co-ordinating Conjunctions

Using Cumulative Conjunctions – and, both….and, also, too, as well as, not only….but also, no less than

  • She is an excellent cook and also a skilled painter.
  • John, as well as his sister, can play the guitar.
  • Not only did he finish the project but also submitted it ahead of time.
  • No less than his brother, he has exceptional skills.
  • Both the children and the adults had fun at the party.
  • The restaurant serves not only delicious food but also excellent service.
  • He is a great football player as well as a talented musician.
  • Not only did they travel to Europe but also visited many countries.
  • She is a fast runner as well as a skilled swimmer.
  • No less than his friend, he has a sharp memory.
  • Both the coffee and the tea taste good.
  • The teacher, as well as the students, enjoyed the field trip.
  • He not only finished the race but also broke the record.
  • Not only does he have a good sense of humour but also has a kind heart.

Using Alternative Conjunctions – or, either….or, neither….nor, otherwise, else

  • You can eat either pizza or pasta for dinner.
  • He was neither happy nor sad about the news.
  • You can either save your money or spend it all.
  • You can either watch a movie or read a book tonight.
  • “Do or die”.
  • You can either go to the beach or go hiking this weekend.
  • She is neither tall nor short, just average height.
  • You can either wear a dress or pants to the party.
  • Study hard, otherwise, you will not pass the exam.
  • Would you like coffee or tea with your breakfast?
  • You can take the bus or the train to get to the city.
  • Do you prefer cats or dogs as pets?
  • Would you like to have pizza or salad for lunch?
  • Remember to lock the door, otherwise, someone might break in.
  • Make sure to wear a coat, otherwise, you’ll get cold outside.
  • You need to follow the rules, or else you’ll get in trouble.
  • Let’s try to fix this issue, else it will just get worse.

Using Adversative Conjunctions – but, still, yet, however, nevertheless, only, whereas

  • She was tired, but she continued working.
  • I wanted to go out, however, it started raining heavily.
  • The project was difficult, but we managed to complete it on time.
  • He studied hard, yet he failed the exam.
  • The road was blocked, still, we managed to reach on time.
  • The weather was bad, yet we decided to go on the hike.
  • I don’t have much experience, only I have the enthusiasm to learn.
  • She is very talented, yet she doesn’t have a job.
  • I really wanted to buy that dress, but it was too expensive.
  • She is very intelligent, but she can be quite forgetful.
  • The hotel had great amenities, yet the service was terrible.
  • He promised to be there on time, however, he arrived an hour late.
  • The movie had great reviews, nevertheless, I found it quite boring.
  • The company had a great year, yet it still had to lay off employees.
  • The party was fun, but it went on too late.
  • The team played well, however, they still lost the game.
  • The weather was beautiful, nevertheless, we stayed inside all day.
  • He is very talented, but he can be quite arrogant.

Using of Illative Conjunctions – so, for, therefore, then

  • He loves music, for it is his passion.
  • The storm knocked out the power, so we lit candles.
  • I have to wake up early tomorrow, therefore I’m going to bed now.
  • He’s a doctor, so he knows a lot about medicine.
  • She was running late, then she missed her train.
  • I need to save money, therefore I’m going to stop eating out.
  • The sun was shining, so we decided to go for a walk.
  • The car broke down, then we had to call for help.
  • She’s very busy, so she doesn’t have time for a social life.
  • I forgot my phone at home, therefore I couldn’t call for a ride.
  • He has a lot of experience, so he’s a great mentor.
  • We need more volunteers, for there is so much work to be done.
  • The traffic was terrible, so we took a different route.
  • I have a cold, therefore I’m going to stay home and rest.
  • She has a lot of followers on social media, so she’s very influential.
  • Rahim was ill, so he could not come to school.
  • He tried hard so he could win the game.
  • I am not going out, for Rima will come now.
  • Piyush was found guilty, therefore he was hanged.

Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions

Using Apposition – that, why, how

  • We know that he is honest.
  • Tom told us that the train had left the station.
  • He’s so confident that he can accomplish anything he sets his mind to.
  • I wonder why she hasn’t responded to my email yet.
  • He explained why he was late for the appointment.
  • She told me how she managed to finish the project on time.
  • I’m impressed by how quickly she learned to play the guitar.
  • Tori made a promise that she would return soon.

Using Reason – as, because

  • Rokul deserves the reward because she has worked hard.
  • He cannot go out because he is ill.
  • I didn’t go to the party because I was feeling tired.
  • Since he started working out regularly, he’s lost a lot of weight.
  • We’re going to the beach as it’s a beautiful day outside.
  • Since the store was closed, we had to find a different place to buy groceries.
  • We can’t go to the concert as we don’t have tickets.
  • Because it’s raining, we’re staying inside today.
  • As we have a lot of work to do, we need to start early.
  • Since she’s allergic to nuts, she can’t eat peanut butter.
  • As she was ill, she could not come to school.
  • As I am ill, I cannot go.

Using Purpose – that, so that, in order that

  • We work so that we may earn a living.
  • He turned up the volume so that he could hear the music better.
  • She saved up her money so that she could buy a new car.
  • We need to finish this project today so that we can meet the deadline.
  • The teacher gave us extra homework so that we could practice more.
  • In order that the food doesn’t spoil, we need to put it in the refrigerator.
  • I’m taking this course so that I can improve my writing skills.
  • We turned off the lights so that we could see the stars in the sky.
  • She started her own business so that she could be her own boss.
  • The doctor prescribed medication so that the patient could feel better.
  • In order that the baby could sleep, we rocked her gently.

Using Effect – that

  • Tom talked so much that his voice became hoarse.
  • The car was so old that it broke down on the way to the destination.
  • The storm was so strong that it knocked down several trees.
  • The athlete trained so hard that he broke the world record.
  • The medicine was so effective that the patient felt better within hours.
  • The noise was so loud that it woke up the entire neighbourhood.
  • The food was so spicy that it made her eyes water.
  • The party was so much fun that she didn’t want it to end.

Using Condition – if, provided, unless, whether

  • If it rains, we will stay indoors.
  • Unless you apologize, I won’t forgive you.
  • He won’t be able to attend the meeting if he doesn’t finish his work on time.
  • If we hurry, we can catch the last train.
  • Unless you start exercising, your health will suffer.
  • If he doesn’t wear a helmet, he could get seriously injured in a bike accident.
  • Unless we leave now, we’ll miss the beginning of the movie.
  • He will die if he takes poison.
  • You will fail unless you work hard.

Using Contrast – though, although

  • Although she was ill, she did his duties.
  • Although he was tired, he decided to finish the work.
  • Though he was warned, he took the risk.
  • However, he is very talented, he lacks confidence in his abilities.
  • Although the restaurant was expensive, the food was not up to the mark.
  • Though he was young, he had a lot of responsibility.

Using Comparison – as, as much as, no less than

  • This mango is not as sweet as honey.
  • She is as generous as she is kind.
  • He knows as much about history as he does about science.
  • She sings as beautifully as a songbird.
  • He loves action no less than fiction.
  • He is taller than my sister.
  • He eats chocolate as often as he drinks coffee.
  • She loves her job as much as she loves her family.
  • He is no less than a genius when it comes to math.
  • She dances as gracefully as a ballerina.
  • The Earth is larger than the moon.

Using Manner – as, so far as

  • Men will reap, as they sow.
  • It happened precisely as I told you.
  • This is not right, so far as I can find out.
  • This is not true, so far as I can see.

Using Time – before, after, when

  • The patient had died before the doctor came.
  • He came after I had left the place.
  • He returned home after he had done office work.
  • Alisha came when I was getting ready to go out.
  • As soon as I wake up, I brush my teeth. 
  • As long as the weather is nice, I enjoy taking walks outside.
  • Before we start the meeting, let’s take a few minutes to review the agenda.
  • Before I go to bed, I always read for at least 30 minutes.
  • After I finish this task, I will take a break.
  • Ramili came here while it was raining.
  • Make haste while the sun shines.
  • No one can harm us as long as we are united.
  • Stay as long as you like.

Using Place – where, wherever

  • I’ll go wherever he goes.
  • You can stay wherever you like.
  • She’ll find her way wherever she is.
  • You can sit wherever you want in the theatre.
  • He’ll be happy living wherever he ends up.
  • You can park your car wherever there is a free spot.
  • She’ll always find a way to help wherever she can.
  • You can travel wherever your heart desires.
  • He’ll follow the music wherever it takes him.
  • You can live wherever suits your lifestyle.

Also, Read

Prepositions of Place Exercises

Prepositions of Location

Main Verbs and Helping Verbs

Main Verbs and Helping Verbs

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