Primary Auxiliaries

Auxiliary Verbs are verbs that merely help principal verbs in the formation of various verb forms. Auxiliary verbs are important as structural verbs.

Auxiliary Verbs are of two types: Primary Auxiliaries and Modal Auxiliaries

Primary Auxiliaries
Primary Auxiliaries ListBe Verb: is, am, are, was, were, been, being
Have Verb: have, has, had, having
Do Verb: do, does, did

The Use of Primary Auxiliaries


TO BE ( is, am, are, was, were, been, being)

TYPE 1: To make Passive Voice

  • It will be done in a short time. (Passive Voice)
  • The work is being done. (Passive Voice)
  • The sum has been worked out. (Passive Voice)

TYPE 2: To make Present Progressive

  • The girl is dancing. (Present Progressive)
  • I am doing the sum. (Present Progressive)
  • They are playing football. (Present Progressive)

TYPE 3: To make Past Progressive

  • He was sleeping at night. (Past Progressive)
  • The boys were reading in the class. (Past Progressive)

TO HAVE (have, has, had, having)

TYPE 1: To make a Passive Voice

The work had been done. (Passive Voice)

TYPE 2: To make Present Perfect

I have done the work. (Present Perfect)
He has gone, to school. (Present Perfect)

TYPE 3: To make Past Perfect

They had collected a picture. (Past Perfect)

TYPE 4: To form Nominative Absolute

The sun having risen, darkness disappeared. (Nominative Absolute)

TO DO (do, does, did.)

TYPE 1: To make an Interrogative sentence

  • Do you study in class X?
  • Does he take tea?
  • Did she write a letter?

TYPE 2: To make a Negative sentence

  • I do not like him.
  • He does not go to school.
  • They did not play football yesterday.

Shortened forms of ‘do’ auxiliaries :

do notdon’tI don’t do this work.
does notdoesn’tHe doesn’t do this work.
did notdidn’tHe didn’t do that work.

TYPE 3: To give stress on a statement

  • I do hereby authorise you.
  • He did help you, and you should not deny that.

NOTE: When the primary (and even modal) auxiliaries are used with the main verb, the change of verb in accordance with the number and person of the subject, the tenses, and the mood is all done to the former (i.e. auxiliaries)

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