Conjunctions are words used to join sentences, phrases or clauses. Conjunctions that join words or phrases: I need a pen and a pencil. I need a pen or a pencil. I need a pen as well as a pencil of good quality.
Conjunctions that join the clauses are subdivided into two main classes – Coordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions.
Coordinating Conjunctions are used to connect sentences, phrases or clauses of equal rank. Coordinating Conjunctions are of four types –
- Cumulative – and, both….and, also, too, as well as, not only….but also, no less than
- Alternative – or, either….or, neither….nor, otherwise, else
- Adversative – but, still, yet, however, nevertheless, only, whereas,
- Illative – so, for, therefore, then
Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions
Cumulative or Copulative Coordinating Conjunctions
- Rini and Sita went to school.
- The king died and his son ascended the throne.
- He played well and got the prize.
- He got the medicine and left the place.
- They both love and respect this great man.
- Both he and his brother will go.
- He is beautiful and you also.
- She is an idler and a gambler too.
- The boy, as well as the girl, is guilty.
- Dipali as well as her brother is honest.
- The teacher, as well as his students, was invited.
- Men like not only wealth but also social position.
- Tom plays not only the drum but also the flute.
- She was not only accused but also convicted.
- Not only he but his mother also will go there.
- Kamal, no less than his father, is an experienced man.
Alternative Coordinating Conjunctions
- Make haste, or you will be late.
- “Do or die”.
- Read or you will fail.
- I shall go there or they will come here.
- Either she or her parents did this work.
- Either my father or I must go.
- He could neither stand up nor lie down.
- Nina is neither foolish nor ignorant.
- Neither he nor his father was guilty.
- I will not give him this pen, nor even his sister.
- Leave the place, otherwise, you will be caught.
- Do what you are told, otherwise, you will be punished.
- Try hard otherwise, you will fail.
- Run, else you will be late.
Adversative Coordinating Conjunctions
- Tony is poor but honest.
- He is sad but hopeful.
- Pinaki tried hard, but he failed.
- She is learned but very rude.
- I can change but I can not die.
- I would help you, only I am too busy.
- The rich are making merry, whereas the poor are dying of starvation.
- He is rich whereas his brother is poor.
- Tulika is very rich, but still (yet) he is not contented.
- The matter was painful, still, he did not complain.
- He worked hard, still, he failed.
- Everyone opposed me, nevertheless, I did not lose heart.
- He was very much annoyed, however, he kept quiet.
- Everyone was against her; however (nevertheless), she stuck to his point.
- India played well, yet they lost the match.
- Life is full of tears yet none wishes to die.
Illative Coordinating Conjunctions
- Tapas Sen is a brave man, so he does not feel afraid.
- Rahim was ill, so he could not come to school.
- He tried hard so he could win the game.
- I am not going out, for Rima will come now.
- Piyush was found guilty, therefore he was hanged.
- This man is dishonest, therefore Piyali will not deal with him.
- The air is cool now, for it is raining.
- I see, then, we should start at once.
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